Recruitment of cases and controls

Eligible cases are black women:

  1. of any age

  2. with histologically confirmed (biopsy-positive) incident cases of invasive primary breast cancer, diagnosed at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital Breast Clinic

  3. who are able to participate and provide biospecimens before the start of any treatment and

  4. who are able to decide whether to provide signed informed consent.

Cases are invited to participate at referral for diagnostic biopsy, and failing that, as soon as possible after diagnosis. Reasons for refusal will be recorded.

Eligible controls are black women who reside in the same neighbourhood as the case and are of similar age (± 3 years) but do not have and have not had breast cancer.